astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

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hemhhr
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astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby hemhhr » Fri Jan 07, 2011 2:50 am UTC

So far I've got
astrology/astronomy
familiar/familial
physician/physicist

What's a good way of describing what these pairs have in common? And what other words could go there? Though I suppose when I know a nice technical name for what's going on here, I'll finally be able to find lists like this on google :p

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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby animeHrmIne » Fri Jan 07, 2011 7:15 am UTC

I think those are just words that have the same roots. Astro has to do with stars: astrology is the (non-scientific) study of stars, astronomy is the (scientific study of the) arrangement of stars.
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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby Iulus Cofield » Fri Jan 07, 2011 8:12 am UTC

Astro comes from Greek αστηρ [aster] which means star and comes from a common PIE root. -Logy and -nomy come from λογος [lɔgɔs] and νομος [nɔmɔs] meaning "(a lot of things not limited to) word, message, story, explanation" and "law, custom", respectively.
Familiar/familial both come from Latin familia which I hear means "the members of a household".
Physician and physicist both come (distantly) from Greek φυσις [fysis] (or [pʰysis] if you go back to Attic Greek) meaning "nature, quality (of something)" via Latin "physica". According to etymonline physician came into English via French fisique where it already had the meaning "art of healing", in the 12th century. Physicist was coined, again according to etymonline, in 1840 probably directly from the Greek root.

I'm not sure if there is a particular word for words which share a primary morpheme. There is a word for words with related meanings that use different morphemes (i.e., moon and lunar) but I can't remember it.

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Sir Novelty Fashion
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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby Sir Novelty Fashion » Sun Feb 06, 2011 4:32 pm UTC

Cosmology and cosmogony are another pair.
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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby Makri » Sun Feb 06, 2011 4:43 pm UTC

Astro comes from Greek αστηρ [aster] which means star and comes from a common PIE root. -Logy and -nomy come from λογος [lɔgɔs] and νομος [nɔmɔs] meaning "(a lot of things not limited to) word, message, story, explanation" and "law, custom", respectively.


Sorry, I can't resist the urge to correct these approximate pronunciations: [astɛ:r], [logos] and [nomos]. (Although I'd rather view those as phonemic, since the precise quality of the vowels and, for instance, whether or not the /l/ was velarized, cannot be known.)
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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby Iulus Cofield » Sun Feb 06, 2011 7:46 pm UTC

My apologies, I was phonetically transcribing according to the way I learned to speak Ancient Greek. I've since learned better.

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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby gmalivuk » Mon Feb 07, 2011 3:57 pm UTC

Sir Novelty Fashion wrote:Cosmology and cosmogony are another pair.
I feel like they're really not. Sure, they both have to do with the cosmos, but -logy and -gony have different meanings of their own, which dictate the differences in meaning between cosmology and cosmogony.
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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby Sir Novelty Fashion » Mon Feb 07, 2011 3:59 pm UTC

... As opposed to -logy and -nomy? :P
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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby gmalivuk » Mon Feb 07, 2011 4:12 pm UTC

Sir Novelty Fashion wrote:... As opposed to -logy and -nomy? :P
I know that those roots have different meanings, but the difference isn't reflected in the modern meanings of "astronomy" and "astrology", whereas cosmology and cosmogony do have a difference in meaning that clearly comes directly from the difference between the roots.
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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby Iulus Cofield » Mon Feb 07, 2011 4:21 pm UTC

I'm not an expert on morphology, so I apologize for mongling terminology and concepts.
But I think cosmo- is in a different class than -logy and -nomy. They're all bound morphemes, but -logy and -nomy are limited in what kinds of morphemes they can be applied to. I think (haven't slept, it's early, could very be well missing something) they can only attach to nouns, maybe even only Class 1 (which are mostly Greco-Latinate) noun morphemes. Cosmo- can have a variety of morphemes attached to. I can think of noun (-polis) and adjective (-ic) morphemes that attach to it. Of course -logy and -nomy can get an adjective morpheme, but only when they're attached to another noun morpheme (e.g. cosmological, and the double adjective morphemes might be indicating another phenomenon going on there)
Cosmo- might even be strong enough to become a free morpheme (cf. retro) if we didn't already have cosmos, which borrows an inflectional Greek noun morpheme (-s).

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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby gmalivuk » Mon Feb 07, 2011 5:03 pm UTC

Iulus Cofield wrote:I'm not an expert on morphology, so I apologize for mongling terminology and concepts.
But I think cosmo- is in a different class than -logy and -nomy.
Sure, but the point wasn't about cosmo-, it was about how the difference between -logy and -gony informs the difference between cosmology and cosmogony, whereas the difference between -nomy and -logy doesn't inform the difference between astrology and astronomy.
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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby Iulus Cofield » Mon Feb 07, 2011 8:46 pm UTC

Oops, my bad. Totally misread what you were saying. Carry on.

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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby adavies42 » Wed Feb 09, 2011 10:39 pm UTC

hemhhr wrote:So far I've got
astrology/astronomy
familiar/familial
physician/physicist

What's a good way of describing what these pairs have in common? And what other words could go there?


what exactly is the commonality you're looking to describe? similar spelling/pronunciation with significantly variant meaning? just off the top of my head,

childish/childlike
chef/chief
simple/simplistic
artful/artificial
ingenious/ingenuous

sometimes these seem to involve semantic drift over time causing people to coin a new word to replace one that's not filling its old slot properly. sometimes they involve multiple borrowings. there's a fairly common pattern where very similar words will have opposite emotional valence. sometimes it seems to involve a preexisting vaguely similar word influencing the spelling of a new borrowing/coinage, making it more similar than it "ought" to have been.

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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby KernowDragon » Wed Feb 09, 2011 11:43 pm UTC

'Chef' and 'Chief' are essentially the same word. Chef is the French word for Chief. In English, 'chef' is taken to mean 'person who cooks food professionally' because of the massive influence French cuisine has had on cuisine globally. When you say "chef" to mean a cook, it's shortened from "Chef de Cuisine", which in French is 'chief of the kitchen'.

The term 'head chef' is redundant in France, because the Chef IS the head chef. Anyone else has a different title (Sous Chef, Chef de Partie, Commis Chef, Cuisiniere, etc).

So yeah... not so much commonality there, but direct translation.

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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby Qaanol » Sat Feb 12, 2011 12:38 pm UTC

I don’t have a name for it either, but I’ll throw a few more examples into the mix:

tortuous/torturous
technique/technology
catheter/catharsis (admittedly mediocre, as the purpose of the former is to provide the latter, but still)
impertinent/impervious
probation/probability

And if we’ll allow mixing parts of speech:

prodigy/prodigal
superfluid/superfluous
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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby KernowDragon » Sun Feb 13, 2011 1:38 am UTC

How about Deprecation/Depreciation?

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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby Iulus Cofield » Sun Feb 13, 2011 1:51 am UTC

By the time you finished finding pairs like this, you'd have most of a dictionary. They aren't anything special in English. They just share a primary morpheme.

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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby Sizik » Tue Feb 15, 2011 3:33 am UTC

indicated/inticted
she/they
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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby Iulus Cofield » Tue Feb 15, 2011 5:09 am UTC

According to Etymonoline, those two actually don't share a root.

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Re: astrology/astronomy and similar pairs

Postby Meteorswarm » Wed Feb 23, 2011 3:40 am UTC

physiology/physiognomy !
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