What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

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What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby ps.02 » Tue Mar 15, 2016 11:11 pm UTC

James Mitchell wrote:What percentage of the Sun's heat (per day) does the population of Earth eat in calories per year? What changes could be made to our diets for the amount of calories to equal the energy of the Sun?

Image

I feel like he kinda skimmed this one. He didn't go into a comparison of food energy density. No mention of a hybrid Mr. Coffee/Mr. Fusion appliance. No mention of whether you could start a fire from the blackbody radiation of enough hamburgers.

I did enjoy the link to The Rock's diet. And I'm right with you, Randall, on the silliness of moving from J to kWh and mAh. Even better when the electric bill is basically kWh/month.

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby slinches » Wed Mar 16, 2016 12:38 am UTC

What's with the Google maps link to Lexington KY?

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby ps.02 » Wed Mar 16, 2016 1:32 am UTC

slinches wrote:What's with the Google maps link to Lexington KY?

The link text says "Citation needed" so the link is to Citation Blvd.

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Echo244 » Wed Mar 16, 2016 9:10 am UTC

Now I just want to contribute to Randall's Creme Egg pile...
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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby leeharveyosmond » Wed Mar 16, 2016 11:39 am UTC

Echo244 wrote:Now I just want to contribute to Randall's Creme Egg pile...


However, the Creme Egg is now less glorious than it once was, courtesy of Cadbury's new owner Kraft. Shell of standard chocolate instead of Dairy Milk.
http://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/jan/12/shellshock-cadbury-comes-clean-on-creme-egg-chocolate-change

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Soupspoon » Wed Mar 16, 2016 12:07 pm UTC

leeharveyosmond wrote:
Echo244 wrote:Now I just want to contribute to Randall's Creme Egg pile...


However, the Creme Egg is now less glorious than it once was, courtesy of Cadbury's new owner Kraft. Shell of standard chocolate instead of Dairy Milk.
http://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/jan/12/shellshock-cadbury-comes-clean-on-creme-egg-chocolate-change

Even if that's not a problem, there's the egg-box cheat!

(I'm sure I saw the latter form with a "reduced price" label, in a supermarket, shortly after it changed. But then I did the maths on other options, and it was still a disadvantageous valuation. I haven't bought them since...)

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Barstro » Wed Mar 16, 2016 12:21 pm UTC

Did Randal answer the question that was asked?

He addressed the energy output of the Sun, but not what fraction of it is directed at the Earth in a single day (unless it is somewhere implied that those figures are actually Earth figures and not Sun figures).

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Neil_Boekend » Wed Mar 16, 2016 12:42 pm UTC

James Mitchell wrote:What percentage of the Sun's heat (per day) does the population of Earth eat in calories per year? What changes could be made to our diets for the amount of calories to equal the energy of the Sun?

While you could interpret that as only the energy that reaches Earth it does not literally say that. It says "the Sun's heat". Not the part of the sun's heat that actually reaches earth. As such Randal immediately answers the question:
0.000000000065%.


If we do take only the energy output that reaches the earth we must divide the percentage by the fraction of the sun's energy that reaches earth.
The fraction of the energy that reaches earth is the area of the sun-facing circle of the earth (the area of a circle with a radius of 6,371.0 km) by the surface of a sphere with a radius of the radius of the Earth's orbit.
That is 1.275×108 km2 divided by 2.812×1017 km2 = 4.534139402560455192034139402560455192034139402560455 × 10-10
0.000000000065%/4.5 × 10-10 = 0.14%
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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby BubDZombie » Wed Mar 16, 2016 1:04 pm UTC

So, in the last image, the McDonald's franchises are selling burgers made of former Solicitor General Ted Olson?

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby xkpj » Wed Mar 16, 2016 4:12 pm UTC

That scale image of the sun got me thinking...
What would be the filesize of a black and white .gif or .png of the sun, to scale?

I started tracking file size increase as a function of diameter, but then I was told to stop and do my job:

gif
3x3: 45 bytes
10x10: 57 bytes
100x100: 333 bytes
1000x000 4500 bytes

png-8
3x3: 132 bytes
10x10: 145 bytes
100x100: 327 bytes
1000x000 3318 bytes

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Sableagle » Wed Mar 16, 2016 5:54 pm UTC

Neil_Boekend wrote:
James Mitchell wrote:What percentage of the Sun's heat (per day) does the population of Earth eat in calories per year? What changes could be made to our diets for the amount of calories to equal the energy of the Sun?

While you could interpret that as only the energy that reaches Earth it does not literally say that. It says "the Sun's heat". Not the part of the sun's heat that actually reaches earth. As such Randal immediately answers the question:
0.000000000065%.


If we do take only the energy output that reaches the earth ...
That is 0.14%
... which compares fairly well to the .33% of Earth's biomass that we supposedly represent ... or would if all that inbound energy was being stored in biomass form and none of it re-radiated, but if any less or it gets re-radiated into space we're gonna be pretty much screwed. Are we, in fact, over-budget there and burning up calories faster than the biosphere can store them?

...

Mouse-over text from [3] today: "making things bigger generally makes them hotter." Rolf Harris would disagree! :twisted:
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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby HES » Wed Mar 16, 2016 6:47 pm UTC

Soupspoon wrote:Even if that's not a problem, there's the egg-box cheat!

I've noticed this year they've been sold as a five pack for £2, or individually at three-for-a-pound. Still not buying any since the switch.
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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby KarenRei » Wed Mar 16, 2016 7:06 pm UTC

Echo244 wrote:Now I just want to contribute to Randall's Creme Egg pile...


Meh, Cadbury Creme Eggs are nothing. Here in Iceland we have "Páskaegg" (lit. "Easter Egg"), which are like this:

Image
Image
Image

Basically, giant decorated chocolate eggs. They're hollow, but inside they're filled with other candies. Sometimes I get one, empty out the candies and fill it with ice cream. It takes a lot of ice cream to do so ;)

I bet a mixture of páskaegg and cadbury cream eggs would have a steeper angle of repose than one of pure cadbury eggs or pure páskaegg.

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby keithl » Wed Mar 16, 2016 7:10 pm UTC

This gets a lot more interesting if "we" is properly redefined. Biohuman brains die, and are suboptimum for long term survival. We will soon add external enhancements and high bandwidth connections to biobrains, and before long "we" will become those enhancements, avoiding pesky annoyances like death and boring travel slower than the speed of light.

Biobrains operate inefficiently at 310 Kelvin, requiring about 25,000 electron volts per bit operation. The Shannon limit for non-reversable bit processing energy is 18 millielectron volts at 310 Kelvin. While some autism-spectrum AI pundits focus on quick response speed, nature favors efficiency, precomputation and pattern matching. An optimal artificial mind will converge on lots of efficient parallel computation at minimum bit energies.

Planetary surfaces are too hot, corrosive, small, and gravitationally deep to support optimal computation. Arrhenius activation of bit rot (storage decay processes) is exponential with temperature, way too fast at 310 Kelvin. That explains 25 keV per biological bit operation - most of that is noise averaging, redundancy, and maintenance in a substrate approximating Jello. A Stapledon-Dyson shell made of nanostructured ice and supported by light pressure at 50 AU radius is closer to optimal, with a black body temperature of 60 Kelvin, operating at 4 meV (milli, not Mega) per bit operation. A 60K human-mind-equivalent might consume 5 microwatts rather than 30 watts (or the 240 watts consumed by Dwayne Johnson's body).

The sun's 384 trillion terawatt output, and the material available in the Kuiper belt and inner Oort cloud, could support 8e31 (80 decillion) human-equivalent minds for the next 5 billion years. 4e41 mind-years, compared to the approximately 1e12 mind-years the Earth has produced so far.

Slowing orbiting material to stationary light-pressure-supported "statites" requires ejecting a sizable fraction of the starting material out of the solar system to conserve linear and angular momentum. This is a handy source of materials for slow star probes (approximately 30 km/s). Those star probes (von Neumann replicators encased in shock-absorbing crumple shells) can prepare similar Stapledon-Dyson shells around the rest of the stars in our neigborhood, expanding to the whole galaxy in a billion years or so. Beaming minds from shell to shell across the galaxy will require less than 100 kiloyears.

This amplifies the Fermi paradox to uncomfortable levels. While earthlike planets are rare, ice bodies probably surround most star systems, easy stepping-stones for expansion. If any extraterrestrial civilization emerged more than 100 Myears ago, a large region of the galaxy would be englobed, and emitting copious amounts of 60K radiation and little visible light - obvious to an infrared space telescope. If they began more than a gigayear ago, our own star system would be inside a similar shell, the night sky would be 60K rather than 2.7K, and there would be no visible stars. We might never consider travel to stars we don't know about.

I spent two months in 2015 exploring this, extrapolating the ultimate consequences of server sky. Search for "Stady" (Stapledon-Dyson) on that site for more (disorganized) calculation and speculation. The organized material will be a chapter in a book.

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Soupspoon » Wed Mar 16, 2016 8:37 pm UTC

KarenRei wrote:Meh, Cadbury Creme Eggs are nothing. Here in Iceland we have "Páskaegg" (lit. "Easter Egg"), which are like this:

Not purely a purely mid-Atlantic(-ridge) phenomenon, I assure you. I can't definitively speak for the US (I presume that it happens!) but the shops in the UK are full of actual Easter Eggs, right now. (Some places started displaying them at least since the New Year deals started to be deshelved.) I can't give you the ins-and-outs of all those available, but they used to ('80s) commonly be hollow-shelled eggs with a plastic bag of mini-treats rattling around inside. Then at one point there was a trend of selling "eggs and mugs", usually to a theme (e.g. Transformers or Barbie, for the stereotypical male and female children) and usually a smaller egg so that it 'sat' in said mug; or then there's ones themed to an existing chocolate bar (e.g. Yorkie Bar, usually in a 'truck-themed' box, that could be played with) with such a bar (normal or 'fun-size', or multiple mini-sized) also packaged up in there.

Or else you can go to some specialist chocolate shop like Thorntons for a large (usually hollow, but rarely enclosing additional treats) and decorative/decorated egg, or bunny, very similar to those photos there, which can even have be personalised with names/messages/etc piped onto it in some form (probably white chocolate, or even coloured white chocolate, especially for the football(/soccer) fans who want red-and-white, blue-and-white or whatever as a them.


Meanwhile, Cadbury's Creme Eggs are available year-round. There is a splurge of either supply or demand1 around Easter, for the obvious reasons of tapping into the general chocolate egg (and bunny, and all the rest) demand, but at my house we didn't subscribe them as actual Easter Eggs. Our family name for CCEs was "Easter-Eggs-You-Don't-Eat-At-Easter".


1 Whichever it is, there's obviously a presumption of the other. But, unlike Easter Eggs, a mismatch between the two doesn't matter so much. If they run out, there's still Easter Eggs while new stock gets brought in, and if they don't sell then they'll happily sit around for a while and still be saleable after Easter at normal (non-Easter) rates, and the supermarket can just cut back on the 'regular' supply for a month or two until their computers tell them they might need to badger the supplier to ramp up to background production/delivery levels again.

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby KarenRei » Thu Mar 17, 2016 2:51 am UTC

Soupspoon wrote:
KarenRei wrote:Meh, Cadbury Creme Eggs are nothing. Here in Iceland we have "Páskaegg" (lit. "Easter Egg"), which are like this:

Not purely a purely mid-Atlantic(-ridge) phenomenon, I assure you. I can't definitively speak for the US (I presume that it happens!) but the shops in the UK are full of actual Easter Eggs, right now.


I used to live in the US; they're not a tradition over there. I mean, you can surely find something similar if you put forth the effort, but it's not the sort of thing where you walk into grocery stores and there's shelves full of them. The closest you might come is "large" hollow chocolate easter bunnies, but they don't as a norm reach the level of commonness or size (by a good margin) and they're not generally candy filled.

In the US, "Easter Egg" means hard boiled egg that has been dipped in food dye. They generally make them with their kids from kits with color tablets that you dissolve in vinegar, and parents often hide them (or plastic eggs designed to look like them) in the garden for their kids to find. Some people ultimately eat the eggs afterward, but my impression is that most people throw them out.

For most people in the US, Cadbury Creme Eggs are an easter-only tradition, along with "peeps" (unnaturally yellow marshmallow chicks) and random individually wrapped low-quality milk chocolates.

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Soupspoon » Thu Mar 17, 2016 3:42 am UTC

KarenRei wrote:I used to live in the US; they're not a tradition over there.
I did have my doubts about my assumptions, I must say.

And it seems that although Halloween got across, got tricked (and treated!) up a gear, then re-imported back to the UK again, it seems that the 'paganesque' egg-decorating aspect got across but not the full-on chocolate thing.

But I think we now digress. Apologies.

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Mikeski » Thu Mar 17, 2016 4:26 am UTC

They're likely to be illegal here, actually.

Wikipedia wrote:The 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act contains a section highlighting that a confectionery product with a non-nutritive object, partially or totally embedded within it[...]

...so they'd only be legal if all the stuff inside was edible. No candy wrappers, toys, etc.

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Echo244 » Thu Mar 17, 2016 9:51 am UTC

KarenRei wrote:
Echo244 wrote:Now I just want to contribute to Randall's Creme Egg pile...


Meh, Cadbury Creme Eggs are nothing. Here in Iceland we have "Páskaegg" (lit. "Easter Egg"), which are like this:

Image

Basically, giant decorated chocolate eggs. They're hollow, but inside they're filled with other candies. Sometimes I get one, empty out the candies and fill it with ice cream. It takes a lot of ice cream to do so ;)

I bet a mixture of páskaegg and cadbury cream eggs would have a steeper angle of repose than one of pure cadbury eggs or pure páskaegg.


Those páskaegg appear to be about twice the size of Easter Eggs here. I'm jealous. Particularly of the child with a páskaegg half as big as she is...

And... filling it with ice cream? That's a *genius* idea. I mean, not something I could do and then eat on my own. But still, sounds... yes, like something that needs to be done.
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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby stopmadnessnow » Thu Mar 17, 2016 9:54 am UTC

Wikipedia wrote:The 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act contains a section highlighting that a confectionery product with a non-nutritive object, partially or totally embedded within it[...]


Doesn't that make fortune cookies illegal? And lollipops, come to that?
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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby cellocgw » Thu Mar 17, 2016 12:54 pm UTC

Eat the Sun?

Clearly a large meal, so afterwards we (you knew this was coming) might as well be^H^H go walking on the Sun.
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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Soupspoon » Thu Mar 17, 2016 1:23 pm UTC

stopmadnessnow wrote:Doesn't that make fortune cookies illegal?
An insidious Japanese plot... *nodnod*

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Tyndmyr » Thu Mar 17, 2016 4:37 pm UTC

Eat the Sun, Drink Niagra Falls....

Randall has gone full 'murrican.

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby rmsgrey » Thu Mar 17, 2016 4:58 pm UTC

stopmadnessnow wrote:
Wikipedia wrote:The 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act contains a section highlighting that a confectionery product with a non-nutritive object, partially or totally embedded within it[...]


Doesn't that make fortune cookies illegal? And lollipops, come to that?


Rice paper?

And on further investigation, there's an exemption for non-nutritive objects with functional value (as ruled by the FDA) - which would cover lollipops.

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby gcgcgcgc » Thu Mar 17, 2016 7:55 pm UTC

Where did footnote [4] go?

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Mikeski » Fri Mar 18, 2016 1:55 am UTC

gcgcgcgc wrote:Where did footnote [4] go?

Unlucky.

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Mikeski » Fri Mar 18, 2016 2:01 am UTC

rmsgrey wrote:
stopmadnessnow wrote:
Wikipedia wrote:The 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act contains a section highlighting that a confectionery product with a non-nutritive object, partially or totally embedded within it[...]


Doesn't that make fortune cookies illegal? And lollipops, come to that?


Rice paper?

And on further investigation, there's an exemption for non-nutritive objects with functional value (as ruled by the FDA) - which would cover lollipops.

Also, good luck getting USAan law applied fairly. Too many people... way, way too many laws.

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Barstro » Fri Mar 18, 2016 12:19 pm UTC

Neil_Boekend wrote:While you could interpret that as only the energy that reaches Earth it does not literally say that.

I was not interpreting it, I explicitly saw that as what was written. I reread it several times.

I was incorrect each and every time. Apparently reading is not fundamental for me. :cry:

At least I get to feel better about the question as a whole. I thought that Randall ignored the original question and everyone here was allowing him to do so. Now I know that I was simply very wrong.

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Neil_Boekend » Fri Mar 18, 2016 1:17 pm UTC

Barstro wrote:
Neil_Boekend wrote:While you could interpret that as only the energy that reaches Earth it does not literally say that.

I was not interpreting it, I explicitly saw that as what was written. I reread it several times.

I was incorrect each and every time. Apparently reading is not fundamental for me. :cry:

Congratulations, you've passed the best turing test to date. :P

It was an interesting extension though.
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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby gmalivuk » Fri Mar 18, 2016 8:00 pm UTC

Neil_Boekend wrote:That is 1.275×108 km2 divided by 2.812×1017 km2 = 4.534139402560455192034139402560455192034139402560455 × 10-10
Do schools not teach significant figures any more?

Sableagle wrote:
Neil_Boekend wrote:That is 0.14%
... which compares fairly well to the .33% of Earth's biomass that we supposedly represent
Not really, because we're comparing solar output per day with human consumption per year.
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Re: What-If 0148: "hungry sun dragon"

Postby ucim » Sat Mar 19, 2016 3:58 am UTC

gmalivuk wrote:Do schools not teach significant figures any more?
Well, if threee figures are significant, then fifty-two figures is almost twenty times as significant.

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Re: What-If 0148: "hungry sun dragon"

Postby Sableagle » Sat Mar 19, 2016 8:01 am UTC

gmalivuk wrote:
Neil_Boekend wrote:That is 0.275×103 km1 divided by 1.812×1017 km1 = 3.534139402560455192034139402560455192034139402560455 × 10-10
Do schools not teach significant figures any more?

Sableagle wrote:
Neil_Boekend wrote:That is 4.14%
... which compares fairly well to the .33% of Earth's biomass that we supposedly represent
Not really, because we're comparing solar output per day with human consumption per year.


So we're not eating more energy than the planet gets from the Sun yet. This is a good thing.

ucim wrote:Well, if threee figures are significant, then fifty-two figures is almost twenty times as significant.

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Re: What-If 0148: "hungry sun dragon"

Postby Neil_Boekend » Sat Mar 19, 2016 3:33 pm UTC

gmalivuk wrote:
Neil_Boekend wrote:That is 0.275×103 km1 divided by 1.812×1017 km1 = 3.534139402560455192034139402560455192034139402560455 × 10-10
Do schools not teach significant figures any more?

Yes they do, but I was a bit hasty and forgot to clean up like I should have.
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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Draco18s » Thu Mar 24, 2016 4:23 am UTC

ps.02 wrote:
slinches wrote:What's with the Google maps link to Lexington KY?

The link text says "Citation needed" so the link is to Citation Blvd.


What you missed was the restaurant hovering nearby. Something about reptiles and being hot as a furnace.

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby x7eggert » Mon Mar 28, 2016 1:26 pm UTC

Draco18s wrote:
ps.02 wrote:
slinches wrote:What's with the Google maps link to Lexington KY?

The link text says "Citation needed" so the link is to Citation Blvd.

What you missed was the restaurant hovering nearby. Something about reptiles and being hot as a furnace.

Hovering restaurants are somebody else's problem.

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Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Eshru » Tue Mar 29, 2016 9:26 pm UTC

Mikeski wrote:They're likely to be illegal here, actually.

Wikipedia wrote:The 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act contains a section highlighting that a confectionery product with a non-nutritive object, partially or totally embedded within it[...]

...so they'd only be legal if all the stuff inside was edible. No candy wrappers, toys, etc.

Wait, what about wonderballs? (Edit 90s version before rerelease in 2000)

Tyndmyr
Posts: 10130
Joined: Wed Jul 25, 2012 8:38 pm UTC

Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Tyndmyr » Wed Mar 30, 2016 2:16 pm UTC

King Cakes?

There's got to be a few cases where this is ignored.

Mikeski
Posts: 869
Joined: Sun Jan 13, 2008 7:24 am UTC
Location: Minnesota, USA

Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Mikeski » Thu Mar 31, 2016 1:58 am UTC

That's the general state of USAan law, yes.

"Some child could choke on the toy inside this hollow chocolate egg! Won't Someone Think Of The ChildrenTM??"

Joe Q. Senator sponsors a bill. Bill gets passed, because everyone in Washington gets votes when they Think Of The ChildrenTM.

The Law sits on the books forever, after changing the situation it was meant to change (no more imported Kinder Eggs.)

Someone else runs afoul of the law 60 years later. They (Nestle corporation) lobby for new regulations to exempt their Magic/Wonderballs. Their competition (Mars) lobbies against that. Current lobbyists and politicians make out like bandits for something that they didn't do. (Notice: "lobby for new regulations". Not "lobby to get the old one repealed". We can't have less Law. That's just crazy talk.)

Everyone in America is guilty of a federal felony of some sort; there are just too many dumb laws on the books. Whether or not you're prosecuted is up to some federal flunky. (King Cakes? Who wants to be the prosecutor arguing against the baby Jesus? And it'd probably get thrown out on Religious Accommodation grounds so the Judge didn't look bad.) Sometimes this works out beautifully (see: Capone, Al, and Evasion, Tax). Sometimes it's a travesty (see: Lerner, Lois, and Party, Tea).

Mental Mouse
Posts: 59
Joined: Tue Mar 18, 2008 1:31 pm UTC

Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Mental Mouse » Wed Apr 06, 2016 11:12 am UTC

Tyndmyr wrote:King Cakes?

There's got to be a few cases where this is ignored.


I'm pretty sure the classic King cake would be flat-out illegal as a commercial product. Doing it at a private party, with advance notice to the guests would probably be legal but might still leave you liable to a later lawsuit.

I wouldn't be surprised if there was an explicit exception for edible containers.

Heading off on a tangent.... I thought about the angle of repose for Cadbury Eggs. It clearly depends on scale. Small-scale, perhaps with chilled CEs, you're balancing ovoids of given density and friction (wrinkled aluminum foil). When the pile gets large enough, the eggs start smooshing into each other, and eventually collapse into a "cell-like " mass of chocolate and sugar-cream (ETA: with air bubbles), partitioned by aluminum-foil membranes. Somewhere about this point, it starts to heat up from pressure, and if you pile high enough, that stuff starts flowing.

And a third thought: Those Big Macs might have a little more energy if they got fused instead of eaten. :)

Mental Mouse
Posts: 59
Joined: Tue Mar 18, 2008 1:31 pm UTC

Re: What-If 0148: "Eat the Sun"

Postby Mental Mouse » Wed Apr 06, 2016 11:24 am UTC

Also: I understand the point behind his comparing solar plasma to reptile bodiles, but holy cow is that a garden-path analogy. The reptile is producing the heat by metabolizing stuff it ate, which it then throws away. The plasma is fusing an infinitsmal fraction of its own mass....


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