10 day-long weeks and only one holiday out of that 10? Gee, I wonder why people didn't jump at that.
Different measurements of space don't really directly affect your life. Houses don't get dramatically smaller, roads don't get significantly wider. However, when your week suddenly from 7 to 10 days and thus you get 4% less time off- instead of getting 52 days off, you get 36? And it's not even Sunday. You can't even go to church.
Since the 10-day week was so tied to the decimal system, it's no wonder it didn't work.
Also, 24 hours actually makes more sense in a day. It's devisable by 2, 4, 3 6, 8 and 12- in halves, quarters, thirds, sixths, eighths and twelfths... which is why 12 is so popular as a number in the older world. 10 is not divisible in quarters OR thirds and since we talk about time so much, speed in saying it is more important than in temperature, for example.
60 and 100 seem to be just as useful. You can divide both evenly by half and in quarters. You can get 10ths out of both, although who measures time in 10ths? (that would probably replace our five minutes).
There's a reason people still use feet and inches to measure certain things- because they're simply so useful. Metres may be brilliant for maths and science, but for real life it makes sense to say 'three feet' instead of using the longer and more nebulous metre.
Also, if we changed the time, we'd have to change all those songs: "11 Days a Week", and that Rent song: "Three-hundred, sixty-five miiiiinutes..." (it doesn't work)
I think people have a stronger fondness for the way our hours are arranged than they do for distance. After all, in distance, people say things like "three blocks" or "ten minutes" as opposed to "a mile". Distance is used more predominately in written measurements- on maps, in calculations and therefore it's less ingrained. Time, interestingly, is far more present in our lives.
You could write an essay on this.