I don't know that you'll be able to find empirical evidence of the differences between the two, but through casual observations, one can conclude that:
Excluding a very small percentage of women, men have far higher testosterone levels.
Testosterone leads to muscle growth, increased sexual drive, increased aggression, etc etc...
For this reason, a male and a female who do the same activities will get significantly varying results, meaning females have to be more dedicated to attain the same results as their male counterparts.
(This is why I refer to male weightlifting as "easy mode" - Natural steroids :p)
Sure, I know a few females who are stronger than me, but after only a year of weightlifting as a male, and being considered intermediate at best, my lifts would be considered "elite" for a female.http://www.exrx.net/Testing/WeightLifti ... dards.html
Somebody above asked about female bodybuilders.
For a female to get to bodybuilder size, they *have* to take steroids. Certainly, the same is true of most males, but looking up "natural bodybuilders", you can see that males are able to become far larger than females, due to the natural advantage of testosterone.
Similarly, it's very easy to obtain a sixpack as a male (trust me). For a female to get a sixpack, her bodyfat percentage has to be lowered to a dangerously low level, meaning it's very rare.
Society also plays a large role, as was mentioned above - it's "wrong" for a female child to wrestle, but if they're male, it's just "playing".
Conversely, males are highly discouraged from embarking upon "female endeavors" such as playing with dolls, using make-up, etc.
Someone mentioned that there's still sexism against females because they aren't allowed combat roles in the army.
There's also sexism against males. Females are allowed to wear any form of clothing, and it is socially acceptable. However, if a male wants to wear a dress, they are persecuted for being "gay".
If a female is raped, it is a heinous crime (which is true), but if it's a male? He "probably wanted it", or was "too weak, needs to shrug it off".