stolid wrote:Always happy to have correction. It's tempting sometimes to put se for 3rd person with those reflexives (since the infinitive has one on it), but I might finally be kicking the habit. I would generally say the first one each time too, just giving different options.
What's wrong with using quien instead of que on #3? And why use the subjunctive conjugation? Point me at a resource if you'd rather not explain it yourself because that genuinely irks me.
My knowledge of grammar is practically zero, but I'll try to explain with examples:
* As for 1, I think that it should be "le
" as the question is directed to the same person who experiences the pain. As a matter of fact, probably it should be "¿Dónde le duele [a usted]?" - at least in Spain. It is possible (don't know) that in Latin America "¿Dónde se duele [usted]?" may be used. But then, maybe my explanation is not good, because in similar cases you would use "se", as in "¿Cómo se
llama [usted]?". Afterthought: compare this last sentence with "¿Cómo le
llaman [a usted]?". Maybe it has something to do with transitive / intransitive, or direct vs indirect objects, but as I said, my knowledge of Spanish grammmar approaches nil.
* In 3, I think that "hable" conveys more the meaning "who can
/ is able of speaking" while "habla" conveys "who usually
speaks in / who now
is speaking ". You could also say "¿Tiene[usted] un pariente que sepa alemán?" or "¿Tiene[usted] un pariente que sepa/pueda hablar [en] alemán?". Surely "habla" would be perfectly understood, but I think "hable" is better.
As for the "quien", I think it is generally used when referring to the subject in a (direct or indirect) question, like "¿Quién eres?", "¿Quién va a conducir?" or "Digame quién mató a Kennedy". Possibly, from a grammatical point of view, it may be correct to use "quien" in the example sentence, but (at least in my environment (Spain)
), it does
sounds awkward. You would say "La persona que ganó las elecciones ..." but not "La persona quien ganó las elecciones ...".
Hope it helps