Assumptions and Theories (from someone who, admittedly, doesn't know what he's talking about):
Randell may have had that long lull before the beanie bunch to buy time to invent a new language.
I doubt Randell had a full language fleshed out in March, he's probably been developing it some time since then, though he may have had the idea for it already.
I doubt this is a direct letter for letter transcript from English, that doesn't sound fun enough.
I doubt that this is anything but an alphabetic language, because that sounds too hard.
However, this begs the question, did Randell develop a language or is he simply using arcane phonetic notations for a language he already knows (being an American, I of course assume that would be English, American English that is
Thinking about the problem domain, and given the slow pace at which the language is being spoken. I expect it's entirely possible that he is making up words and writing them in his alphabet as he needs them.
If I were creating a language, I would make my alphabet phonetic. It's simpler, and having a non-phonetic alphabet generally implies the creation of several different language origins, which would make the problem more complex.
A phonetic language only helps us if they are speaking English underneath it all, since we will never hear them speak to know what each phoneme sounds like. Unless Cuegan tries to repeat something they saying using roughly phonetic English spelling.
If all of this is true, then identifying letter groups (that aren't whole words)
is futile. It might
give us a chance to identify what the language sounds like, but rarely do phonetic groupings (that aren't whole words)
actually hold meaning. There are obvious exceptions to that, 's' or 'ed' at the end of a word for example, but that gives us little help in translating.
What this means is that the only thing we have to go on in translating their speech is identifying nouns based on gesturing (like the medicine) or pronouns (if we see something that might be 'you' popping up repeatedly).
As far as the nature of their vocabulary, I think it's safe to assume that they have a relatively English-like word set. I somewhat doubt that Randell developed an entire divergent culture based on different notions of vocabulary and how they express themselves. (e.g. Having no words for Left and Right and using a complex vocabulary for Cardinal directions instead)
There are probably pronouns.
There may not be articles but I would guess there are (though the more language we see without extremely common letter groupings, the more likely there aren't).
However, there's no reason that verbs and nouns and adjectives go in the same order as English, but it would certainly be easier for Randell if they did.
With the words as short as they are so far, I'm guessing it's more Latin in language style than Germanic, in that they tend to use separate adjectives instead of making really long words to describe something.
Tenses, conjugations, and such may be simplified, which would also make things easier for Randell if he's constructing a language instead of just a phonetic English alphabet.
To summarize, it's probably either English written in a weird phonetic alphabet, which should be relatively simple to crack. If it isn't, it's probably a made up language, and our only real hope is to start to get used to specific words and begin developing a vocabulary from scratch.
I am not a linguistics expert by any stretch of the imagination, but guessing wildly is fun!