## Topology?

For the discussion of math. Duh.

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Dwalin
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### Topology?

Any body know some interesting subjects in topology for an hour presentation, based on minimal prior knowledge?

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### Re: Topology?

This is the obvious answer, but you could use computer network topologies to describe the math?
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Dwalin
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### Re: Topology?

Well, I was hoping for something more purely mathematical, but thanks.

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### Re: Topology?

What general level are your audience at?
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Tac-Tics
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### Re: Topology?

What level class are we talking about?

I think it might be good to show using simple, concrete examples. First, explain what open and closed sets are, in nontechnical terms, and give examples:

"An open set is a set where every point can be wiggled a little bit and still be inside the set

A closed set is a set whose compliment is open

Examples of open sets in R include (0, 1), (-pi, pi), and (0, infinity)

Examples of closed sets in R include [0, 1], [0, 42], [-10, 10]

Open and closed are NOT opposites. The interval (0, 1] is an example of a set which is NEITHER open NOR closed. The empty set and the set R itself are BOTH open AND closed.

Go on to explain these concepts generalize into R^2 naturally. A circle including all points inside and including the boundary is an example of a closed set. A circle including all its interior points, but without the boundary is an example of an open set.

An open set containing a point p is called an (open) neighborhood of p.

Then, it is nice to produce a useful result with the definitions. The topological definition of a function is a really good example.

A function f maps points from R^2 to R^2. We can also think of f mapping subsets of R^2 to subsets of R^2 in a natural way: If X is a set, then f(X) is the set {f(x) for x in X}.

Then, finally, a continuous function from R^2 to R^2 is one where the following is possible. Given any open set in R^2 called Y, we can find an open set in R^2 called X such that f(X) is a subset of Y.

The reason for using R^2 is it makes for a nicer picture. Wikipedia has a nice picture of what I mean (though, the names of the variables are different):

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuous_function_%28topology%29

Token
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### Re: Topology?

Tac-Tics wrote: "An open set is a set where every point can be wiggled a little bit and still be inside the set

That's the definition of an open set in a metric space, not a topological one.
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Tac-Tics
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### Re: Topology?

Token wrote:
Tac-Tics wrote: "An open set is a set where every point can be wiggled a little bit and still be inside the set

That's the definition of an open set in a metric space, not a topological one.

Like I said, start with a concrete example. We don't need to talk about the general case of a topological space, and it would be pointless to try to do so in an hour-long presentation. One- and two-dimensional space is something everyone is familiar with, so the OP should take advantage of that.

Token
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### Re: Topology?

Familiar, yes, but that's no reason to lie to people about definitions.
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Harg
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### Re: Topology?

If your audience is at a high enough level, it might be fun to show some "strange" examples. Define a homeomorphism and talk about why we require a continuous inverse to a continuous mapping (ask them for an example; if they've only ever seen real functions of a real variable, they'll have to think about it), show them some homeomorphic spaces (specifically do the stereographic projection of a sphere onto a plane), maybe show some manifolds (they look nice; it might be worth it to mention fundamental polygons here, at least for the torus and the Möbius strip, perhaps the projective plane). Finally, some pathology: you could display the multitude of limits of a sequence in a non-T2 space etc. If you really want to, you can talk intuitively about the long line (although I doubt there's anything intuitive about it )
Topology is fun to talk about, since people who don't actually study it have never heard any of this.

Tac-Tics
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### Re: Topology?

Token wrote:Familiar, yes, but that's no reason to lie to people about definitions.

How it is a lie? It's a restriction of the standard definition.

If you wanted to go into detail and explain what a topology is... "there's a set X and a collection of subsets of X called T such that {} is in T and X is in T and for any subcollection U of T, the union of all sets in U are in T and for any finite subcollection U of T, the intersection is in T".... the students are going to miss the whole point. The entire concept of open and closed sets comes directly from observations in the metrics on R and R^2.

Skimp the technical stuff for conceptual understanding. You can't teach topology in an hour, but you can get the students interested in it in that time frame.

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### Re: Topology?

Token wrote:
Tac-Tics wrote: "An open set is a set where every point can be wiggled a little bit and still be inside the set

That's the definition of an open set in a metric space, not a topological one.

That depends what you mean by "a little it". If you mean "a distance smaller than epsilon", you have the metric space definition. If you mean "inside an element of some basis", then you have a general topological space definition.
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### Re: Topology?

The intro I like to talk about is gluing together edges of a square in order to make a sphere (all glued into a single point), a torus (opposite sides glued), a klein bottle (one pair of opposite sides glued with a flip), and real projective space (both opposite sides glued with flips).
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Yakk
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### Re: Topology?

You don't need to glue them all to a single point to make a sphere.

Just fold it down the diagonal and glue the sides that touch should work.
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Last edited by JHVH on Fri Oct 23, 4004 BCE 6:17 pm, edited 6 times in total.

Token
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### Re: Topology?

Yakk wrote:You don't need to glue them all to a single point to make a sphere.

Just fold it down the diagonal and glue the sides that touch should work.

Why "you don't need to"? Your method is the more complicated of the two...
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Yakk
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### Re: Topology?

Gluing all sides of a square to a single point is gluing a bunch of 2-spaces to a 1-space. Seems inelegant when you can do it without collapsing a dimension, which is what all of the other glue constructions required.
One of the painful things about our time is that those who feel certainty are stupid, and those with any imagination and understanding are filled with doubt and indecision - BR

Last edited by JHVH on Fri Oct 23, 4004 BCE 6:17 pm, edited 6 times in total.

gmalivuk
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### Re: Topology?

Token wrote:
Tac-Tics wrote: "An open set is a set where every point can be wiggled a little bit and still be inside the set

That's the definition of an open set in a metric space, not a topological one.

You could simply throw in a "for example" if you're all butthurt about "lying" to people.

"A topology is a set along with a collection of open subsets of that set. In what's called a metric space, for example, an open set is one where every point inside has a small region around it that's still inside the set."
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### Re: Topology?

"A topology on a set is just a sort of rule telling us which points are 'close together'. It does this by specifying something called a closure operation: the closure of a set A is the set of all the points 'close' to A. Since the idea of topology is to study this idea in general, though, we'll let any operation count as a closure operation, and just redefine 'close' to match, as long as it satisfies a few basic rules: (list the Kuratowski closure axioms)"

This might be a good way to introduce topological spaces in general without scaring everyone away with the abstractness.
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### Re: Topology?

Who defines topological spaces using closures, anyways? I've only seen the open set definition. Also, calling the closure of A the set of points "close" to A can be confusing, since close is often used to mean "in some neighborhood of."
I'm looking forward to the day when the SNES emulator on my computer works by emulating the elementary particles in an actual, physical box with Nintendo stamped on the side.

"With math, all things are possible." —Rebecca Watson